What types of retirement accounts exist, and what's the difference?

IRA: Standard pre-tax contribution account. Gains are not taxed. Withdrawals are taxed as ordinary income.

ROTH: Standard post-tax contribution account. Withdrawals and gains are not taxed if taken after age 60.

401(k): employer sponsored contribution account. can have both pre-tax and post-tax assets in it and often includes matching contributions by the employer.

403(b): Pre-tax employer sponsored account available to employees of public schools, colleges, universities, charities, state governments, local governments and other tax-exempt entities under section 501(c)(3) of the IRS code.

TSP: Pre-tax account available to government employees, both civilian and military and functions very much like a 401(k)

Profit sharing (Keogh): These types of plan are usually for self-employed individuals and can be rolled into an IRA if no contributions are being made.

457: Is another type of pre-tax account available to some of the entities listed after 403(b)
Taxable: A typical brokerage account funded with after tax dollars. Realized gains are taxed. Sometimes referred to as “Individual Taxable” or “Joint Taxable”.